International Journal of Pathogen Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Pathogen Research (ISSN:&nbsp;2582-3876)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers related to all aspects of pathogens and pathogen-host interactions.&nbsp;The journal covers all pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, prions, parasites, and protozoa that infect humans or animals, the&nbsp;diagnosis, management, or treatment for pathogen-related diseases, the diseases that have important medical, agricultural, and economic consequences as well as environmental and public health implications. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Journal of Pathogen Research en-US International Journal of Pathogen Research 2582-3876 Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) among Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Karu Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria <p>The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attendees in Massaka, Karu Local Government Area of Nassarawa State, North Central Nigeria. Formal consent was obtained from the State Hospital Board to carry out the survey. The study which involved 200 pregnant women aged 18-45 years randomly selected using a systematic random sampling technique was conducted between the months of May-June was a cross sectional health facility-based study. Structured questionnaire was used to generate data from respondents, after which blood samples aseptically collected were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen. Socio-demographic characteristics as well as some of the factors that influence infection were evaluated. Results obtained from the study revealed a 6.5% prevalence rate of infection in the studied population. Prevalence of infection among the subjects within the age range of 35-45 years was lowest (5.8%). However, while it was 5.2% for the married, it was 6.6% for the unmarried. Prevalence of infection was higher among the category with no formal education. Similarly, prevalence was higher among the rural dwellers (6.8%) than their urban counterparts (5.6%). Factors examined were not statistically significant predisposing to HBV infection. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBsAg among ante-natal clinic attendees in Masaka&nbsp; was (6.5%) lower than the reported national prevalence (14.1%). Owing the outcome of this study, it is recommended that improved surveillance for HBV infection and screening of women attending ANC be instituted.</p> J. C. Ndubuisi Mohammed Aisha Chris Akunneh Wariso D. C. Ejiofor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 1 5 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i430209 Microbial Quality and Aflatoxin Levels of Bread and Flour Products Vended in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study evaluated the microbial quality characteristics of bread and flour-made products vended for human consummation in Akure metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The sample products including bread, buns, puff puff, meat pie and cake collected from different locations were analysed using standard microbiological methods to enumerate the bacterial and fungal consortia. Macro and micro-morphological identification of the implicated fungi in the food samples were done via standard techniques. The presence and quantity of some aflatoxin types were also investigated using standard techniques.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The fungal organisms enumerated include species of <em>Fusarium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium</em>, <em>Mucor</em>, <em>Sacharomyces cerevisiae,</em> <em>Rhizopus </em>and <em>Penicillium.</em> Bacteria consortium implicated in sample products include; <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus </em>sp.<em>, Escherichia coli, Clostridium </em>sp., <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>aeruginosa</em> and the likes. The levels of aflatoxin B1 and B2 produced were predominantly associated with <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> enumerated from bread products which serve as a rider to the aflatoxin contamination in vended flour products.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The toxicity and potency of aflatoxins make them a primary health hazard and as well accountable for losses associated with contamination of processed foods and ready-to-eat foods. It is recommended that bakers should implement the use of heat-treated flour in the production process of ready-to-eat products for human safety.</p> Anthony Kayode Onifade Margaret Olaide Akande ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 6 17 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i430210 Proximate Composition and Parasitic Contamination of Hibiscus sabdariffa Seed Cake (Roselle Seed Cake): A Soup Condiment Produced by North-Western Community, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Soup condiments are edible food items which are added to dishes, used as thickeners for soup and also as food supplements such as sauce that is added to food to impact specific flavours. They are abundantly produced in Nigeria especially in North-Western part of the country.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this research was to determine the proximate composition and parasitic contamination of <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa </em>seed cake (Roselle seed cake): a soup condiment produced by North-Western Community, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Samples were purchased and collected at random from the markets of different places in the study areas, aseptically placed into polythene bags and labelled correctly.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in Zuru and Sakaba Local Government Areas of Kebbi State, North-Western Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The proximate analysis carried out include: moisture determination, ash determination, determination of crude protein, lipid determination, fibre determination and carbohydrate estimation by difference. The protozoa present in the samples were identified by direct microscopy.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The proximate composition of <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa </em>seed cake in the study areas had a very high level of carbohydrate content (52.44±1.03%), followed by the moisture content (15.43±0.10%), lipid content (12.00±0.50%), fibre content (11.16±0.58%), ash content (7.80±0.05%) and crude protein content (1.16±0.13%) which was the lowest. The highest prevalence rate of the identified protozoa was recorded in <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>2(50.0%) followed by <em>Giardia lamblia </em>1(25.0%) in Zuru Local Government Area. No protozoa was seen in Zuru sample 0(0.0%). In Dabai sample, <em>Giardia lamblia </em>was seen 1(25.0%). While in Bedi sample, <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>2(50.0%) was seen which was the most prevalent. However, in Sakaba Local Government Area, a total of nine protozoa was seen and all were <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em>. Dirin-Daji sample showed 1(11.1%), Doka 2(22.2%), Dankolo 2(22.2%), Janbirni 1(11.1%), Laraba 1(11.1%) and Makuku 2(22.2%) respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can be concluded that the available carbohydrate and moisture contents were higher than other parameters and the local soup condiments were heavily contaminated with protozoa and <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>had the highest prevalence which can cause serious food-borne diseases in humans in the study areas. Finally, the need to apply good manufacturing practices in processing the condiments in the study areas and North-Western Nigerian Community as a whole is highly recommended.</p> D. D. Attah Y. M. Sanyinna N. T. Isyaku M. K. Kele N. A. Ridwan B. A. Emmanuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 18 31 10.9734/ijpr/2021/v8i430211